The Whole Method Of Lawn Maintenance Of Golf Course Is Sketchy

- Mar 22, 2018 -

First, I feel that I need to know the golf course if I want to maintain the golf course.

(1) the location of the golf course

The golf course is generally located in the open and gentle slope of the foothills, covering 65~75 hectares, depending on the size of the hole. The specific location requirements are as follows: 1, terrain requirements. The site should not be too rugged or too steep. The base can retain some natural features such as gentle slope and water surface, as a natural barrier for the field. 2. Soil requirements. The golf course and the green are required to grow high quality turf, which is very important for soil analysis and treatment. Sandy soil is the ideal soil for golf courses. Whether the nutrient of the soil has been depleted by the original crop and whether it can meet the needs of the planting of grass, the site selection should consider these factors in detail, which is beneficial to the maintenance and management of the future. 3. The golf course should have convenient transportation conditions. It is usually selected near the highway or near the urban trunk. A large amount of water is needed to maintain a large area of the golf course, and sufficient water supply is an important factor affecting the maintenance of the course. The court should choose an elegant environment with pleasant weather, such as lakeside, forest, landscape and hillside.

(2) the main composition of the golf course

The main specifications of the stadium include 9 holes and 18 holes, which should be determined according to the venue and the ball. The normal 18 holes are divided into 18 venues with different sizes and shapes, each of which is made up of the tee, the fairway, the green and the hole. The total length of the standard course is 5943 ~ 6400m, the width is uncertain, the court should have the boundary around, the key lot has the boundary pile. 1. Guild hall. Also known as golf club, the entrance to the stadium is to provide a place for players to rest, dress and eat. There is a parking lot in front of the hall, and it is usually set up to see the views of the players. 2, tee. Tee is the beginning of each fairway shot, a fairway often include three different distances of the neutral zone, respectively female neutral zone (than male neutral zone close to the green 20%), male neutral zone, and race neutral zone (kick-off in the area from the green after the most distant), sometimes also will serve three occasions and into a large service court. The serving area should be higher than the surrounding terrain, in favor of water drainage. 3. Fairway. Fairway area is the largest part of the field, from service court to the green by the road, on both sides of the fairway is undulating terrain or bushes, fairway and fairway phase separation, fairway for the broad lawn, players can usually see the green in the neutral zone. According to the distance of athletes, often around the ball area and green systematically set obstacles such as bunkers, ponds, streams, used to punish the athletes incorrect shots, and improve the irritating and intensity of the game. 4. Green. The green is the core of every fairway and the location of the hole. After the ball is entered into the hole, it is the end of the fairway and enters the next fairway. The area of green area is 111 ~ 2545 square metre, shape has round, elliptic wait, the height is taller than four sides the terrain is tall 30 1 100 centimeters. 5. Practice field. The practice area is where beginners learn to play. It can be located in a city or near a golf course.

(3) key points of the field design

Golf course design with certain flexibility, its marketable sports place is different, have no fixed the scale of the strict requirements, as long as meet the basic stem number per hole and the length of the fairway. Golf courses are generally chosen in areas with natural topography. So the design of an important principle is to adjust measures to local conditions, ingenious use of collection of the original terrain of the design, make full use of the old minister ling, mountain, lake, forest land and other natural landscape, combined with gore stadium competition requirements, try to reduce the earth volume, comprehensive planning and design. This not only saves investment, but also easily form oneself characteristic. Pursuit of personality is a feature of the gore stadium design, no two are exactly the same in the world of golf course, each gore in their own stadium department conducted in-depth research on the creation of characteristics, in order to attract more members.

1. The set of the serve table: the tee is shaped in a variety of shapes, with a rectangle, square and oval. In addition, multi-purpose, circular, s-shaped, l-shaped, etc. The area is 30 -- 150 square meters, higher than the surrounding. 3 ~ 1.0 meters. To facilitate drainage and increase the visibility of the batter, the surface is a clipped short grass that requires a certain stiffness and smooth surface. Although the service platform is small, but the tracking degree is very heavy, requires the surface water to be eliminated quickly, from the Angle of the service Angle consideration and should have the - fixed flatness, generally take l % -2 % of the microslope.

2. Fairway design: the north-south direction is the ideal fairway, and the fairway is usually 90-550 meters long. The width is 30 to 55 meters and the average width is 41 meters.

3. Green design A. Green is a key area of the gower stadium. Each green's size, shape, contour and surrounding sand pit all have their own characteristics to create a rich challenge and interest. The green lawn height requirement is between 5.0-6.4 cm, and it is evenly and smooth. B. Drainage of the green. The surface water should be discharged from two or more areas. The terrain of the green is designed to allow the drainage of surface water to avoid the flow of people. Most slopes of a green ridge should not exceed 3 per cent to ensure the direction of the ball after hitting the ball. C. Practice the green. Practice green is a dedicated practice area for players who learn golf to practice hitting holes. Practice green is usually located near the kloew club and the first tee. You should be able to set 9-18 holes and their replacement locations. The green surface should have a certain slope. It is also advisable to use 3%. To ensure the quality of the green grass. A golf course should set up 2 or more exercises for the green rotation.

4. Obstacle area: the obstacle area is generally made up of sand pit, pool and bushes. The purpose of this is to punish the athletes for not hitting the ball accurately. It is much more difficult to get the ball from the obstacle area than it is to hit the ball. A. Bunkers. The sand pit generally covers an area of 140 ~ 380 square meters, some sand pit can be up to 2400 square metre or so. Now most of the 18 hole golf course with 40-80 bunkers, can according to the requirements of the play and the designer's design ideas determine the song dynasty. The stadium bunkers in accordance with natural setting strategy, make people think of tee in the correct position. The location of the sandpit is usually determined by the distance of the tournament tee. The location of the sand pit should also be based on the drainage characteristics of the area. The sand pit should have good ground and underground drainage conditions. In low-lying and underground drainage, or in areas with good seepage conditions under sand pits. The sandpit can be built below the floor of the grass. From the maintenance management perspective. The sand pit on the side of the green side should be set 3-3 from the green lawn. 7 meters place, in order to build mechanical passage and sand was blown onto the lawn to prevent the sand pit. The bunker at the grass-roots level in the sand at least should be lO centimeters thick, jumping pit slopes or raised sand bed thickness should be at least 5 cm; The sand in the fairway sandpit is relatively shallow - some. The requirements for the sand pit in gower stadium are strict, and the diameter of 75 % of sand shall be between 0.25 and 1 O.5 mm (medium grained sand). Sand is best when you choose sand with sharp corners. The colors of the sand are white, brown or light grey. But it should be avoided that the sand is too white, resulting in the inability to see the ball. B. Pool. The pool is not only a barrier to hitting the ball, but also a good landscaping effect. A pool can be designed in a single fairway or a pool of several fairways. Sometimes, the ball or green is located on an island surrounded by water, increasing the difficulty and fun of hitting the ball and enriching the fairway landscape. The pool side is suitable for landscape, but a small bridge, set ting step, can plan the fountain or waterfall when the area is large and the water source is adequate.

5. Sign tree. Logo of the golf course when the tree is to make high feel golfers hit the ball to juice to calculate the position of the ball placement and planting, often from the tee 50, 100, 150, 200 yards (1 yards = 0.9144 m) on the location of the plant, can be 50, 150 yards in single planting tree big or small, in 100, 200 yards planted two big or small, make the batter easy to judge the princes of the ball to the ground from.

6, other. In addition to the above mentioned aspects, golf course design generally includes the driving range, the guild hall and the rest booth, etc., can be flexibly set according to the specific situation. Stadium area, from dozens of hectares of land planning out of 18 fairway, generally 18-hole course, consists of four short hole, 4 long hole and the 10 hole, par 72, however, if there are special terrain and land area of the difference of the factors such as size, its par can be between 72 bar to add and subtract 3 bar. It is easy to say that 18 holes are acceptable between 69 and 75. Under the good planning of designers, the entire 18-hole function of the whole stadium can make the whole group of 14 clubs reach full use.

The distance between the short, medium and long hole is as follows:

Short hole - par 3 (Par3), length is below 250 yards.

Middle hole - par 4 (Par4), length between 251 and 470 yards.

Long hole - par 5 (Par5), length is over 471

2. Garden maintenance of golf course

Here's an example of the crawling clippers:

Modern golf are increasingly demanding in the quality of the green lawn, the us open the green speed has reached more than ten feet, the speed of increase will inevitably require the green grass clippings height also continuously create a new low, from 5.0 mm to 3.5 mm or so, and further to 2.5 mm. Creeping cut strands of glume with its excellent resistance to low cutting ability, dwarf creeping character, fine texture, attractive color and almost all the year round green period became the golf course of choice for the green grass seed, according to incomplete statistics, the global golf green crawling cut strands glume utility ratio as high as 75% above. But prostrate cut strands of glume originated in the temperate zone of northern Europe, is a typical type of cold season lawn grass, the optimum growth temperature is 20 ℃, 15 - under the condition of higher than the temperature of 25 ℃, prostrate cut glume inhibition of growth that is significant. And summer temperatures in most areas of China are much higher than 25 ℃, the Yangtze river basin of the summer this year for more than 25 days of continuous high temperature weather above 35 ℃. Under such extreme environmental pressure, the entire stadium will be threatened with death if managed inadvertently. Therefore, the summer management of the crawlies is the most important technical obstacle in the management of golf course in China. According to our latest research results in this paper, the drop down to cut strands of caryopsis ridge in summer management of the main measures and its physiological mechanism and anatomy, to golf course turf governors in China in the summer on the correct understanding of management techniques help.

1. The adaptation mechanism for the summer heat by the creeping shears

Under the conditions of high temperature stress, the creeping shears would produce adaptive mechanism to reduce the harm caused by stress and obtain certain resistance to high temperature adversity. Plants of heat-resistant mechanism includes two aspects: heat and avoid hot plant thermotolerance in membrane lipid composition and membrane stability, reactive oxygen species and protective enzyme system, heat shock protein, protein, etc., dehydration rubber matrix, betaine small molecules such as monitoring material under high temperature stress and has stable function of protein in the cell space configuration and function of biological membrane structure, heat resistant performance was also involved in the plants in the different degree of regulation.

Plants to avoid heat is mainly done by plant transpiration, due to the plant transpiration and evaporation of moisture, make plants or surface of the liquid water is turned into gas water vapor, took a lot of heat, can reduce the blade surface temperature, improve the plant canopy of the small environment, avoid high temperature harm plants.

Transpiration efficiency mainly depends on the blade surface moisture humidity and ambient humidity difference, the greater the humidity difference, the higher the efficiency of the transpiration, take away the heat energy is, the greater the plant canopy temperature is the more further, and the smaller the thermal damage by plants. This is why the heat resistance of plants is poor in high temperature and high humidity, which is more susceptible to heat damage. Affect plant evaporation and transpiration efficiency of another primary reason is the wind, the higher the air flow speed, the faster the water vapor diffusion velocity is, the higher the efficiency of evaporation and transpiration, cooling effect is more obvious.

2. Several relationships in the anti-thermal mechanism of the creeping shears

1. The relationship between photosynthesis and respiration

Photosynthesis, plants use the sun's energy and storage of the main form of energy, each kind of plant photosynthesis efficiency has a suitable high temperature limit, i.e. the saturation point of photosynthesis, after more than its saturation point temperature, plant photosynthesis by obvious inhibition, photosynthetic efficiency obvious decline. According to our research, prostrate cut strands of glume photosynthetic saturation point temperature is about 28 ℃, the new breeding of heat resistant varieties (Crenshaw, L - 93, Penn A - 4) than the traditional heat sensitive varieties (Penncross) about 2-3 ℃ higher photosynthetic saturation point.

Contrary to photosynthesis, respiration is a process of energy plants, with the increase of temperature, respiration also will increase, when the breath consumed more energy than photosynthesis of synthesis of energy, energy plant will appear owe, this energy owe is usually prostrate cut strands of glume lawn summer starting factor lower quality.

2. The relationship between sun and night

Temperature change in a day as the sun rises and landing the present day and night, the change rule of photosynthesis in plants can only when the sunshine in the daytime, and respiration is 24 hours a day are inevitable. In addition, the transport and storage of plant photosynthetic products mainly occur at night. Our research shows that the extreme heat during the day is mainly caused by the direct injury of photosynthetic electron transport chain, oxygen free radical, cell membrane lipid oxidation and cell dysfunction. Plants can through own regulating mechanism and the night to repair these direct damage, if the damage is not very hot during the day, and night temperature is low, plant basically can achieve full the night repair. But once the temperature of the night exceeds the plant's tolerance, the plant's ability to repair itself will be greatly reduced. Night, on the other hand, the high temperature will greatly increase the prostrate cut glume respiration consumption, so that the plant body energy is indebted state, in the long term, the plants will die because the energy consumed and failure. Although all day and night temperature stress on ying creeping shear shares cause serious harm, but relatively speaking, the harm of high temperature at night is bigger, usually cause creeping cut lawn caryopsis ridge is the main reason for the decline in the quality from the heat of the night



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